As India is being ravaged by the second wave of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic it beckons to have look at the origins of this Virus from Wuhan and the research that was carried out in development of Coronavirus at Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. Let’s first explore the research which was being undertaken by Chinese Scientist Shi Zhengli (also known as Batwoman) for her extensive research and experiments in relation to Coronaviruses and its natural hosts in Bats. The research dates back to October 2007 where Chinese Scientists published a paper “Mice transgenic for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 provide a model for SARS coronavirus infection” in Journal ‘American Association of Laboratory Animal Sciences’ where they claimed to have introduced a human ACE2 (hACE2) gene into mouse & infected them with SARS CoV & found virus replicated for efficiently with lung damage. In another paper “Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin” published in February 2008 in Journal of Virology, Shi Zhengli talks about working on binding of S Protein of SL-CoV & SARS-CoV with ACE2 receptors and use of HIV based Pseudovirus with cell lines ACE2 receptors of Human, Civet & Horsehoe Bats.
In research paper titled “Immunogenicity difference between the SARS coronavirus and the bat SARS-like coronavirus spike (S) proteins” published in Elsevier in September 2009, Shi Zhengli and her team were testing on Different S Protein sequences in SL-CoV & SARS-CoV and testing its adaptability with HIV1/BJ01 Pseudovirus. This was used on mice for testing. In research paper “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins of different bat species confer variable susceptibility to SARS-CoV entry” published in June 2010 in PubMed.Gov, Shi Zhengli again talks about using ACE2 molecules from several Bat species and tested their interaction with Human SARS-CoV Spike Protein using HIV Psuedotype. An HIV-1 Pseudovirus carrying SARS-CoV with BJ01 which was prepared, clearly giving it about ‘Gain of Function’ research being carried on by her team on Coronaviruses.
Further in October 2013, another paper published in Nature (medical journal) titled “Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor”, Shi Zhengli and her team talk of finding that two Bat Coronavirus with ACE2 receptors which mimic human Sars-CoV and make receptors bind more efficiently to S Protein. Making it easier for human transmission without an immediate host. In research paper titled, “A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence” published on 9th November 2015 in Nature Medicine journal, Shi Zhengli says that they have ‘Synthetically’ redrived a full length infectious recombinant virus & demonstrate virus replication easily reducing efficacy of anti-bodies & vaccine failed to neutralise CoV (Coronavirus) with Spike Protein. The above research clearly shows that Shi Zhengli and her team of Chinese Scientists were carrying out ‘Gain of Function’ work on Coronavirus with aim to spicing up Spike Protein of Human CoV (SARS 1) with that of a Bat Coronavirus and make its receptor binding with Human ACE2 receptors easier thus making it more virulent and easier to spread among Humans.
The result of this ‘Gain of Function’ research carried out Chinese scientists on Coronaviruses actually created a deadly Supervirus which could easily spread among humans. The said facts are further corroborated by research on SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19). In research paper titled, “Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody” published in February 2020 Shi Zhengli discusses how Spike Protein in COVID-19 binds with ACE2 receptors with Human cells. Also emphasises that most potent SARS-CoV specific Anti Bodies fail to neutralise the binding of S Protein with ACE2 receptors in COVID-19. Something which makes this virus, its S Protein more potent than earlier coronavirus. However, it identifies that CR-3022 anti-body had far more effect in stopping the binding the process which makes it likely candidate for therapeutic candidate for vaccines & treatment of COVID19.
In another research study titled “A furin cleavage site was discovered in the S protein of the 2019 novel coronavirus” published in February 2020, a team at Nankai University in Tianjin, China found genes COVID-19 which did not exist in SARS but can be found in both of the viruses responsible for spreading HIV and Ebola. They explain that the virus uses outreaching spike protein to hook on to the host cell, but normally this protein is inactive. The cleavage site structure’s job is to trick the human furin protein, so it will cut & activate spike protein & cause a “direct fusion” of the viral & cellular membranes. In a follow-up study titled ‘Furin, a therapeutic target for COVID-19’ dt 23rd February 2020, research team led by Professor Li Hua from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, Hubei province, confirmed Ruan’s findings. The mutation in COVID-19 could not be found in Sars, Mers or Bat-CoVRaTG13, a bat coronavirus that was considered the original source of the new coronavirus with 96 per cent similarity in genes. This could be “the reason why SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious than other coronaviruses”, Li wrote in the paper. Chinese researchers said drugs targeting furin enzyme could have the potential to hinder the virus’s replication in the human body. These include “a series of HIV-1 drugs. The above research on SARS-CoV-2 clearly suggests ‘Gain of Function’ over earlier Coronaviruses like SARS 1 or MERS.
After going through the research of Chinese scientists, it is clear that SARS-CoV-2 is a designer virus created in lab through ‘Gain of Function’ research which is able to infect humans more rapidly and even able to replicate faster by hoodwinking the acquired antibodies and even Vaccines to limited extent a concern that has been raised by the WHO about new mutant variants like B.1.617 the strain found in Maharashtra, India or B.1.1.7 the strain found in UK which originated in Kent. Now lets go through the research which tells us how this Virus originated at Wuhan Lab in China and not through Bat species as is official narrative peddled by WHO, China and alike to coverup the origins of this Pandemic.
A report “Possible Origins of 2019-nCoV Coronavirus”, published by Biologists in China in February 2020 claims that Coronavirus or COVID-19 originated from the Wuhan Laboratory and not the nearby sea food market or the bats contesting the official claims of Beijing. The CCP later forced this paper to be taken down as it spoke the inconvenient truth. Further report states that According to municipal reports and the testimonies of 31 residents and 28 visitors, the bat was never a food source in the city, and no bat was traded in the market. In a recent scientific study published on 15th February 2020 in ‘The Lancet’, titled “Clinical features of patients infected with Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China” stated that, ‘The symptom onset date of the first patient identified was Dec 1, 2019. The study further states that None of his family members developed fever or any respiratory symptoms. No epidemiological link was found between the first patient and later cases”. There were no links of spread of infection in many patients in Wuhan from Seafood market.
Now in another research paper published on 15th February 2020, “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study”, it was found that nearly 51% of early patients of COVID-19 had no contact with Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan. Now in a research paper titled, “Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia”, published on 26th March 2020 in the New England Journal of Medicine says incubation period of virus to be 12.5 days in patients before 1st January 2020. If you take the Lancet study, Patient Zero was diagnosed on 1st December 2019 and NEJM saying incubation period to 12.5 days to showing symptoms and hospitalisation which means the virus spread began around 17th November 2019.
An infectious disease specialist Daniel Lucy at Georgetown University also reviewed the information that came out in Lancet papers by Chinese researchers and concluded that Human transmission of COVID-19 began in November 2019 much before cluster at Huanan Sea Food Market. She opined that, “if the new data are accurate, the first human infections must have occurred in November 2019—if not earlier—because there is an incubation time between infection and symptoms surfacing. If so, the virus possibly spread silently between people in Wuhan—and perhaps elsewhere—before the cluster of cases from the city’s now-infamous Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market was discovered in late December. “The virus came into that marketplace before it came out of that marketplace.”
The above scientific research many of which is of scientific origin clearly establishes that Chinese scientists lead by Shi Zhengli were working on Virology research and how to make Sars-CoV more receptive & binding to Human ACE2 receptors thus making its spread faster in body. The above research also establishes the probability of this Virus having spread by accidental leak from Wuhan Lab in China. Now we know what ‘Gain Of Function’ research was going on in Wuhan BSL 3 Lab inside China but the question that remains is was China alone in this or was there some other power too backing and funding this dangerous scientific research of creating super viruses. Lets explore that going forward.
From 2014 to July 13, 2020, NIAID in USA sent $3.75 million to Eco Health Alliance to study “bat coronavirus emergence.” EHA then sent $600k of that to the Wuhan lab in China. The research that was being carried out in Wuhan Institute of Virology is seen through research paper titled, “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” in Journal of Virology. The research states, “We recently isolated a bat SL-CoV strain (WIV1) and constructed an infectious clone of another strain (SHC014); significantly, these strains are closely related to SARS-CoV and capable of using the same cellular receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]) as SARS-CoV (6, 7). Despite the high similarity in genomic sequences and receptor usage of these two strains, there is still some difference between the N-terminal domains of the S proteins of SARS-CoV and other SL-CoVs, indicating that other unknown SL-CoVs are circulating in bats”.
Now this research paper in the footnotes talks about funding of this research and it states “HHS| National Institutes of Health (NIH) provided funding to Peter Daszak and Zheng-Li Shi under grant number NIAID R01AI110964”. This grant by NIH, USA under no R01AI110964 was sub awarded by Eco Health Alliance to Wuhan Institute of Virology on 31st May 2019 as is visible on US Government’s website. The lead researcher who received the grants from NIAID via Eco Health Alliance even admitted in his own hand that he would be conducting gain-of-function research by engineering infectious strands of cloned SARS-like bat coronaviruses. He states in the research paper, “Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence”, “We will use S protein sequence data, infectious clone technology, in vitro and in vivo infection experiments and analysis of receptor binding to test the hypothesis that % divergence thresholds in S protein sequences predict spillover potential.”
Another scientist Nicholas Wade who writes for Nature has opined on this that, “What this means, in non-technical language, is that Dr. Shi set out to create novel coronaviruses with the highest possible infectivity for human cells. Her plan was to take genes that coded for spike proteins possessing a variety of measured affinities for human cells, ranging from high to low. She would insert these spike genes one by one into the backbone of a number of viral genomes (“reverse genetics” and “infectious clone technology”), creating a series of chimeric viruses. These chimeric viruses would then be tested for their ability to attack human cell cultures (“in vitro”) and humanized mice (“in vivo”). And this information would help predict the likelihood of “spillover,” the jump of a coronavirus from bats to people.”
Nicholas Wade cuts deep into the argument of Genomes, Virus RNA’s, Furin Cleavage site of SARS 2 Coronavirus to establish that SARS-CoV-2 origin is probably related to experiments in Wuhan Lab, China. He states in article “Origin of Covid — Following the Clues”: “So it’s hard to explain how the SARS2 virus picked up its furin cleavage site naturally, whether by mutation or recombination. That leaves a gain-of-function experiment. For those who think SARS2 may have escaped from a lab, explaining the furin cleavage site is no problem at all. “Since 1992 the virology community has known that the one sure way to make a virus deadlier is to give it a furin cleavage site at the S1/S2 junction in the laboratory,” writes Dr. Steven Quay, a biotech entrepreneur interested in the origins of SARS2. “At least eleven gain-of-function experiments, adding a furin site to make a virus more infective, are published in the open literature, including [by] Dr. Zhengli Shi, head of coronavirus research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.”
He further states all known SARS-related beta-coronaviruses, only SARS2 possesses a furin cleavage site. All the other viruses have their S2 unit cleaved at a different site and by a different mechanism. He further goes on to say it was impossible for SARS 2 to have acquired Furin Cleavage site due to mutation or recombination and was likely the result of “Gain of Function” research carried out by Chinese scientist Shi Zhengli in Wuhan Lab.
It is worth noting that Dr Shi then teamed up with Ralph S Baric an eminent coronavirus researcher at the University of North Carolina, USA and produced a research paper already stated above i.e. “A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence” (2015) wherein Dr Shi and Professor Ralph Baric focused on enhancing the ability of bat viruses to attack humans so as to “examine the emergence potential (that is, the potential to infect humans) of circulating bat CoVs.” That for these “Gain of Function” research of making Coronavirus more virulent, Dr Shi in Wuhan Lab, China received regular grants from NIH in USA through Eco Health Alliance. That once this was brought to notice of Trump Administration it made sure NIH notified Eco Health Alliance that sanctioned project is cancelled and make sure no aid is sent to Wuhan Institute of Virology from the grants of 2020.
However, on 19th August 2020, NIH reversed its termination of Eco Health Alliance till it meets new requirements including arranging an inspection of Wuhan Institute Of Virology. And finally, on 28th August 2020, NIH awarded $7.5 Million to Eco Health Alliance for research on “work to determine how and where viruses and other new pathogens emerge from nature to begin infecting people”. This question of America’s NIH funding was put to Dr Fauci (US’s Top Epidemiologists on infectious diseases) by Senator Rand Paul in a Congressional hearing few days back. However, Dr Fauci clearly denied US funding to Wuhan Institute of Virology when the facts clearly show that USA gave grants to Eco Health Alliance through NIH, which were further passed on to WIV, China.
What however is little discussed is China’s Biological Weapon’s Programme and the use of SARS Coronavirus as Bio Weapon. This shocking angle was brought to light when a book named ‘The Unnatural Origin of SARS and New Species of Man-Made Viruses as Genetic Bioweapons’ written by PLA Scientists in 2015 was leaked online few days back. The translation of the said book provides some shocking details about the origin of SARS Coronaviruses.
Few of the translated paragraphs of the book written by PLA scientists are as follows:
Since SARS CoV is a passing phenomenon in the history of human viral diseases, the author refers to it as “passenger virus”. The CoV strain is an animal virus that has been transformed by unnatural evolutionary techniques to cause human disease and is completely unadapted to humans and has no surviving host. It is a virus that disappears in nature and in the population after one (intermittent) epidemic. At the same time, in view of the security of our national defence and military and the current situation of rampant international terrorism, SARS-CoV may even be the latest type of genetic weapon, or in other words, an epoch-making genetic weapon. The reason is that, whereas previously, genetic weapons were weaponized by original pathogens, SARS-CoV was weaponized by an animal virus that was artificially transformed into a new species of human virus and released in an unprecedented manner. The author calls this unprecedented type of genetic weapon “man-made human virus genetic weapon” according to its origin.
This is a combination of genetic technology and population adaptation tests, where animal viruses are modified to cause human disease and weaponised for release into a population (see Chapter 4h of this book). Here. The following passage must be quoted, which I only found when searching the literature on 26 November 2013.” (page 56)
“More interestingly, in the course of writing the book, the author. In May 2003, shortly after the SARS epidemic, the author stumbled upon an international journalist in the field of microbiology and coronaviruses. In May 2003, shortly after the SARS epidemic, an international authority in the field of microbiology and coronaviruses argued in a top journal: “Thus, the SARS coronavirus is neither a mutant nor a recombinant of any known coronavirus. It is a previously unknown coronavirus, probably from a non-human host, that has somehow acquired the ability to infect humans.” It can be seen that this expert’s assertion actually suggests that SARS CoV has an unusual and extraordinary origin, and it is not known how (it) evolved to “adapt (to) man”; in other words, it cannot be excluded from unnatural evolution.” (page 113)
“For the first time in international history, we have elucidated the origin of SARS CoV. and the absence of a direct ancestor and reservoir host in the physical world. This led to the development of the concept of a “human-made novel virus passerine genetic weapon”, after it was established that there was no direct ancestor or reservoir host. Why SARS CoV is of unnatural origin is addressed from different perspectives in several chapters of this book. This chapter draws the reader’s attention to. SARS and other emerging infectious diseases, and indeed all other infectious diseases, are characterised by three very unusual phenomena. The differences in the distribution of cases, modes of transmission and clinical manifestations between the various phases of the epidemic in Guangdong and on the mainland of China are striking and anomalous.” (page 115)
“Within a few months, it had spread to 29 countries and territories worldwide, and after a year or so, SARS CoV had disappeared from the natural world and from populations. Therefore, SARS is not a natural disease of epidemiological origin; in this sense, it is also a further indication that SARS CoV entered humans in a unnatural way. As mentioned earlier, natural epidemic diseases are rarely mentioned in Western epidemiology. It is often discussed in relation to zoonotic diseases. Of course, both natural and zoonotic disease theories have emerged from the struggle between different human populations and infectious diseases; however, if one thinks deeply and extensively, it is clear that in terms of revealing the true origins of SARS CoV However, if one thinks deeply and broadly, the concept of human-animal syndromes is somewhat inferior to the theory of natural epidemic systems and, perhaps, to the theory of natural epidemics.” (page 114).
The above paras from the book Unnatural Origins of SARS (supra) actually further corroborates the theory of SARS Coronavirus 2 being an unnatural one emanating from the Wuhan Lab, which was probably being researched upon by China and its military as bio weapon. It also strengthens the view that Coronavirus has not emanated from Natural or Zoonic source i.e. Horseshoe bats to Humans but a virus cultured in Wuhan Lab. The book also notes that earlier Coronavirus reverse evolved as in reduced pathogenicity and virulence in time like SARS & MERS. However, this time SARS 2 CoV has been spiced up using of ‘Gain Of Function’ approach. Thus, it clearly established that Scientists in China lead by Dr Shi Zhengli have been developing super viruses in Wuhan Lab through ‘Gain of Function’ which was ably funded by US’s NIH thus make it complicit in creating this ‘Biological Chernobyl’ called SARS-Coronavirus 2 which has ravaged countries across the world and killed lakhs in the two waves to so far. These Bio warfare programmes & research of China has unleashed ‘Biological Chernobyl’ on the world and those who developed this Virus or aided its research are guilty of crimes against Humanity.
• “Mice transgenic for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 provide a model for SARS coronavirus infection” – ttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17974127/
• “Difference in Receptor Usage between Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and SARS-Like Coronavirus of Bat Origin” – https://jvi.asm.org/content/82/4/1899
• “Immunogenicity difference between the SARS coronavirus and the bat SARS-like coronavirus spike (S) proteins” – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7092906/
• “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) proteins of different bat species confer variable susceptibility to SARS-CoV entry” – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20567988/
• “Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor” – https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12711
• “A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence” – https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.3985
• “Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody” – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32065055/#:~:text=The%20newly%20identified%202019%20novel,specific%20antiviral%20treatment%20or%20vaccine.
• “A furin cleavage site was discovered in the S protein of the 2019 novel coronavirus” – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338804501_A_furin_cleavage_site_was_discovered_in_the_S_protein_of_the_2019_novel_coronavirus
• Furin, a therapeutic target for COVID-19’ – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33043282/
• “Possible Origins of 2019-nCoV Coronavirus” – https://img-prod.tgcom24.mediaset.it/images/2020/02/16/114720192-5eb8307f-017c-4075-a697-348628da0204.pdf
• Clinical features of patients infected with Noval Coronavirus in Wuhan, China” – https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext
• Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study” – https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30211-7/fulltext#%20
• “Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia” – https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa2001316
• Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally – https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/01/wuhan-seafood-market-may-not-be-source-novel-virus-spreading-globally
• USASpending.Gov – https://www.usaspending.gov/award/ASST_NON_R01AI110964_7529
• “Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus” – https://jvi.asm.org/content/jvi/90/6/3253.full.pdf
• “Understanding the Risk of Bat Coronavirus Emergence” – https://reporter.nih.gov/search/xQW6UJmWfUuOV01ntGvLwQ/project-details/9819304
• “Origin of Covid — Following the Clues” – https://nicholaswade.medium.com/origin-of-covid-following-the-clues-6f03564c038
• NIH Cancels Funding for Bat Coronavirus Research Project – https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/nih-cancels-funding-for-bat-coronavirus-research-project-67486
• ‘The Unnatural Origin of SARS and New Species of Man-Made Viruses as Genetic Bioweapons’ (2015) – Xu Dezhong, Professor, Department of Military Epidemiology, Fourth Military Medical University; INCLEN CEU, Director